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When the esophagoscope reaches the cardia and moves into the stomach, there is no resistance. Normally, a slight resistance of the cardiac sphincter is usually experienced. Achalasia of the esophagus. This is a kind of neuromuscular disease of the esophagus, in which the passage of food masses from the esophagus to buy zetia online is disturbed due to non-opening of the physiological cardia (achalasia) and a violation, more often a decrease, of the peristalsis of the esophagus.
The disease is relatively rare. It occurs predominantly in persons 20-40 years of age and is equally common in men and women. The etiology of achalasia is not well understood. Psychic trauma (in 94% of patients), esophagitis, intoxication, trauma of the esophagus are of some importance. The pathogenesis is explained differently. The theory of organic changes in the esophagus interpreted cardiospasm and further expansion of its overlying sections by inflammation and subsequent tissue sclerosis. Spasm of the muscles of the cardial part of the esophagus was tried to be reproduced by alcoholization of the phrenic nerve, and achalasia was associated with dysfunction of the vagus nerve. The theory of atony of the esophagus was also discussed, according to order ezetimibe, with achalasia, a peculiar dysfunction develops, accompanied by an expansion of the lumen of the esophagus.
Currently, they adhere to the view that the basis of the disease is the loss of a normal reflex of the cardia during swallowing (and - in Greek - denial, chala-zis - relaxation). There are also dystrophic changes in the muscle tissue of the esophagus, degeneration of nerve cells in the ganglia, dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system, which causes erratic movement of the muscles of the esophagus during swallowing (dyskinesia). There are several classifications of this disease. BD Petrovsky (1979) distinguishes four stages of the disease.